# Calculate Quarter & FY Totals With Single Excel Function

**Updated:**03/20/24 • 4 min read

## Excel Function To Provide Quarter and Full Year Totals

I've been on a custom function blitz ever since **I learned how to use Lambda Functions** in Excel. I'm super excited to share with you a function that I created to replace the manual work I do all the time as a finance professional.

I have created a LAMBDA function called **QTRFY()** that when fed 12 month's worth of data, will automatically perform the task of calculating the totals for the quarter and full year (FY).

Take a look at this function in action!

## Formula Logic With Dynamic Arrays

Let's first walk through the logic of how we can form an array output that both calculates quarter and full-year totals based on a range. Below is the formula I used (I challenge you to write something shorter!).

=HSTACK(BYCOL(WRAPCOLS(A2:L2,3),SUM),SUM(A2:L2))

### WRAPCOLS Function

The **WRAPCOLS **function is being used to reorganize the single row of data into a 3-row by 4-column spill range. Said another way, I am wrapping the range of cells **A2:L2** after every 3 values, creating a 3x4 matrix. This essentially groups the data into quarters for me.

### BYCOL Function

After the **WRAPCOLS **function has rearranged the data, **BYCOL **is used to process this data column by column. Specifically, **BYCOL **takes the array output from **WRAPCOLS **and applies the **SUM **function to each column individually. This results in an array where each element is the sum of one of the newly formed columns from the **WRAPCOLS **function. This effectively creates totals for each of the quarters.

### HSTACK Function

Finally, the **HSTACK function is used to horizontally combine (stack) arrays or values. In the previous sections,** we used **BYCOL **+ **WRAPCOLS **to calculate the Quarter totals in an array output.

We now need to add a full-year calculation using the **SUM **function to the Quarterly output so we have an array output with both calculations.

As you can see in the illustration below, feeding both the **Quarters **and the **Full Year** formulas through **HSTACK **will combine them into a single array result.

**Converting To A LAMBDA Function**

Now that the logic is working just the way we need it, it's time to turn this into a reusable custom function. We can now utilize the LAMBDA function to do this.

**Writing The LAMBDA On The Grid**

When I'm building out LAMBDA functions, I like to first ensure they work on the grid (spreadsheet). To do this, we'll need to take 3 steps:

- Write the LAMDBA formula in a cell
- Pass values into LAMBDA function
- Add An Error Handler

**Step 1:** Converting our base formula logic to a LAMDA is pretty straightforward. We'll just replace the range **A2:L2** with a variable called "**mths**".

=LAMBDA(mths, HSTACK(BYCOL(WRAPCOLS(mths, 3), SUM), SUM(mths)))

**Step 2:** Next, we'll need to give the "mths" variable a value to see the output of the LAMBDA on the spreadsheet:

=LAMBDA(mths, HSTACK(BYCOL(WRAPCOLS(mths, 3), SUM), SUM(mths))) (A2:L2)

**Step 3:** Finally, I wanted to get a little fancy and add an error handler to this function to ensure a range of 12 cells is actually getting input into the function. I decided to handle this with an IF function that passes the range through a COLUMNS function. If the test determines the range is not equal to exactly 12 cells, then I output an error message through the function.

=LAMBDA(mths, IF(COLUMNS(mths)<>12, "#INVALID - Range must be 12 cells", HSTACK( BYCOL( WRAPCOLS(mths, 3), SUM), SUM(mths)))) (A2:J2)

### Embedding The LAMBDA Function Into The Workbook

Now to create the custom function. To do this, all we need to do is create a Named Range.

- Navigate to
**Formula Tab**>>**Define Names Button** - Enter a
**Name**(eg QTRFY) - Enter a description in the
**Comments**(this will appear as a tooltip in the Formula Bar) - Use the
**Refers To**section to paste in your Lambda formula - Click
**OK**

After you have created your **Named Range**, your custom function will appear when you start typing the function's name in the **Formula Bar**.

Note: This will only be stored in this single workbook. If you want to import this LAMBDA function to other spreadsheet files, you will need to set up a **LAMBDA importing process**.

**I Hope This Microsoft Excel Article Helped!**

Hopefully, I was able to explain how you can use a LAMBDA function in combination with various other Dynamic Array functions to create your very own Quarter/Full Year Total calculator. If you have any questions about this technique or suggestions on how to improve it, please let me know in the comments section below.

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#### Chris Newman

Chris is a finance professional and Excel MVP recognized by Microsoft since 2016. With his expertise, he founded TheSpreadsheetGuru blog to help fellow Excel users, where he shares his vast creative solutions & expertise. In addition, he has developed over 7 widely-used Excel Add-ins that have been embraced by individuals and companies worldwide.